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    Entries P-T  
    Entries U-Z  


Modified: 10.11.2003

This is the alphabetical index of all keywords and their meaning that are used in the texts.

Entries A to E
Alternating Support:
In roman basilicas columns and pillars are arranged in an alternating sequence to break up the rigid impression of the unpretentious architecture. Usually the large arcs of the central nave are carried by pillars. These arcs are divided into smaller arcs (given by the size of the aisles) which lie on columns. If the size of the aisles arcs is half of the central nave then pillars and columns alternate strictly. If the ration is one to three, each pillar of the central nave is followed by two columns of the aisles that are usually thinner. This kind of secquence can be seen in St. Michael in Hildesheim (see left image).

Originally "Hall of the King" (probably after the hall of the archon Basileus in Athens), building with a large cetral nave with one or more suplemental, smaller aisles at each of the long sides. The romans used this kind of buildings primary as multi-purpose halls (as market building and courtroom), than the christs took this concept as basis for the romanic churches. The central nave is higher than the side aisles so in the upper part there are usually windows to let some light into the church. The use of romanic arcs (that can only form quadratic vaults) leads to the ad quadratum construction of basilicas: the width of the central naves bays is a mutliple of the side aisles (usually two or three times) so that all other units of the building can be derived from the units of the crossing. In later centuries the basilica is extended by the choire, towers and the westwork. In the late middle age the basilica is replaced by the hall church.

Evangelists Symbols:
In mediaeval paintings and books the four evangelists are often represented by their symbols. Here are the symbols, the according evangelists and an example image:

Angel: Mathew.   Lion: Marcus.   Bull: Luke.   Eagle: John.

Entries F to J
Entries K to O
Entries P to T
Small ornamental tower, usually on top of pillars and on canopies. Gothic.
Rood Screen:
A dividing wall between the central nave in which the community watched the service and the choir that was reserved for the clerics. Rood screens were common since the 13th century. The rod screen usually had one or more openings but limited the sight into the choir. Rood screens did not fit into the new liturgy (mainly because of the reformation) because they stood between the community and the Sacrifice of the Mass. For this reason most rood screens were destroyed in the late middle age.


Entries U to Z
In Carolingian times an extension of the church was build on the western side, opposite of the choir. This extension is called westwork and usually contained the baptismal font. The upper floor offerd room for the emperors and their retinue. So the growing size of the westwork during the following centuries is a sign of the growing power and influence of the secular rulers. Since the high middle ages even the towers of the church are usually located in this western part.


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